- Static endurance: the average increase is 30.3% at an average stimulation frequency of 75 +/- 44 Hz. (1, 2, 3)
Dynamic endurance: the average increase is 41% at an average stimulation frequency of 76 Hz +/- 10 Hz (2, 4, 5, 7).
Long-term stimulation with low frequency stimulation of skeletal muscle in experiments on animals (rabbits) resulted in the development of mainly slow twitch muscle fibres with a high proportion of mitochondria (6).
- Selected Literature:
Alon, G., McCombre, S.A., Koutsantonis, S., Stumphauzer, L.J., Burgwin, K.C., Parent, M.M., & Bosworth, R.A. (1987). Comparison of the Effects of Electrical Stimulation and Exercise on Abdominal Musculature. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 8(12), 567-573.
Ballantyne, E., Donne, B. (1999): Effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on static and dynamic abdominal strength and endurance in healthy males. Sport Science, 431.
Kahanovitz, N., Nordin, M., Verderame, R., Parnianpour, M., Yabut, S., Viola, K., Greenidge, N., Mulvihill, M. (1987). Normal trunk muscle strength and endurance in women and the effect of exercises and electrical stimulation. Part 1: Normal endurance and trunk muscle strength in 101 women. Spine, 12 (2): 105-111.
Kim, C. K., Takala, T. E. S., Seger, J. & Karpakka, J. (1995). Training Effects of Electrically Induced Dynamic Contractions in Human Quadriceps Muscle. Aviat Space Environ Med, 66, 251-255.
Marqueste, T., Hug, F., Decherchi, P. Jammes, Y. (2003). Changes in neuromuscular function after training by functional electrical stimulation. Muscle Nerve 28, 181-188.
Pette, D., Vrbova, G. (1985) Neural control of phenotypic expression in mammalian muscle fibres. Muscle Nerve 8, 676.
Porcari, J., Miller, J., Cornwell, K., Foster, C., Gibson, M., McLean, K., Kernozek, T. (2005). The Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Training on Abdominal Strength, Endurance and Selected Anthropometric Measures. J of Sport Science and Medicine, 4, 66-75.