Today, patients with pacemakers or implanted defibrillators are being deemed as unsuitable for EMS-therapy or EMS-training. The range of indications for which a device should be implanted such as pacemakers, biventricular devices or AICDs has expanded to a large extent meaning that there are many more patients with cardiac insufficiency who can benefit from this form of training who would otherwise have been ruled out. The current expert opinion tends to enable EMS-training for aggregate carriers. This is due to the type and duration of the pulses created by EasyMotionSkin, which are not detected as ventricular fibrillation and thus will not cause a shock. They also do not interfere with the functioning of pacemakers or biventricular devices. This opinion can be supported by the fact that many patients with such devices have taken part in EMS training under clinically controlled conditions and upon submission of a written letter of consent. There was not a single case of a device worn by patients malfunctioning. Well-known manufacturers such as Medtronik® and Boston Scientific® are currently working on a declaration to have the use of EMS-training on people wearing these devices officially approved. Tip: EMS training for subframe can safely be used according to present knowledge. There are currently no official, legally-binding declarations from the manufacturers but they are expected soon. In any case, an application must be under medical supervision.